A cryptorchid is a fairly rare condition in which both testicles are absent.  A monorchid has only one fully descended testicle.  Usually the testicle is present, but not descended.  Occasionally hormones can cause the testicle to descend to a normal position.  Dogs who are cryptorchid are sterile and can't be bred; monorchid dogs can reproduce, but most people don't breed them since the trait can be passed on.   Many Vets recommend that these dogs be sterilized for health reasons, since the retained testicle may result in an increased risk of cancer.

Pyometria is a potentially life-threatening abscess of the uterus.  A vet should be seen immediately if you suspect this condition.  The infection may either drain from the uterus or collect there, causing painful enlargement.  A hysterectomy guarantees full recovery.  For a potential brood bitch, there is a course of treatment with prostaglandin, which can sometimes eliminate the infection.  Since, there is always the possibility of recurrence, the bitch should be bred on her next heat if a hysterectomy is not performed.